Recent advances on phosphorescent cycloplatinated compounds containing tetradentate nitrogen ligands for OLED applications

Document Type : Review


Departament de Química Inorgànica i Orgànica, Secció de Química Inorgànica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain



Tetradentate platinum(II) emitters are a research topic of great interest since they can be used as dopants for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). These compounds benefit from the square-planar geometry of platinum(II) and the rigidity of the tetradentate ligand. Cyclometallated ligands are particularly appealing since they are thermally stable and display a high ligand field splitting which favors efficient emission. The photophysical properties of these complexes can be tuned by structural modifications, introduction of substituents or control of the intermolecular interactions. Several of the studied compounds have been successfully tested for electroluminescent devices. An overview of the advances reported in this field for the last five years is presented in this work.

Graphical Abstract

Recent advances on phosphorescent cycloplatinated compounds containing tetradentate nitrogen ligands for OLED applications


  1. J. A. G. Williams, S. Develay, D. L. Rochester, L. Murphy, Coord. Chem. Rev., 2008, 252, 2596-2611.
  2. J. Kalinowski, V. Fattori, M. Cocchi, J. A. G. Williams, Coord. Chem. Rev., 2011, 255, 2401-2425.
  3. A. Haque, L. Xu, R. A. Al-Balushi, M. K. Al-Suti, R. Ilmi, Z. Guo, M. S. Khan, W. Y. Wong, P. R. Raithby, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2019, 48, 5547-5563.
  4. C. Gourlaouen, C. Daniel, Dalt. Trans., 2014, 43, 17806-17819.
  5. G. Li, H. Guo, X. Fang, Y. F. Yang, Y. Sun, W. Lou, Q. Zhang, Y. She, Chinese J. Chem., 2022, 40, 223234.
  6. T. Fleetham, G. Li, J. Li, Adv. Mater., 2017, 29, 1601861.
  7. G. Li, G. Shen, X. Fang, Y. F. Yang, F. Zhan, J. Zheng, W. Lou, Q. Zhang, Y. She, Inorg. Chem., 2020, 59, 18109-18121.
  8. H. H. Zhang, S. X. Wu, Y. Q. Wang, T. G. Xie, S. S. Sun, Y. L. Liu, L. Z. Han, X. P. Zhang, Z. F. Shi, Dye. Pigment., 2022, 197, 109857.
  9. R. J. Ortiz, J. D. Braun, J. A. G. Williams, D. E. Herbert, Inorg. Chem., 2021, 60, 16881-16894.
  10. S. Huo, J. Carroll, D. A. K. Vezzu, Asian J. Org. Chem., 2015, 4, 1210-1245.
  11. M. C. Tang, A. K. W. Chan, M. Y. Chan, V. W. W. Yam, Top. Curr. Chem., 2016, 374, 1-43.
  12. C. Cebrián, M. Mauro, Beilstein J. Org. Chem., 2018, 14, 1459-1481.
  13. D. Chen, W. Li, L. Gan, Z. Wang, M. Li, S. J. Su, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports, 2020, 142, 100581.
  14. G. Cheng, Q. Wan, W. H. Ang, C. L. Kwong, W. P. To, P. K. Chow, C. C. Kwok, C. M. Che, Adv. Opt. Mater., 2019, 7, 1801452.
  15. T. B. Fleetham, L. Huang, K. Klimes, J. Brooks, J. Li, Chem. Mater., 2016, 28, 3276-3282.
  16. X. Wang, T. Peng, C. Nguyen, Z. H. Lu, N. Wang, W. Wu, Q. Li, S. Wang, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2017, 27, 1604318.
  17. C. Lee, R. Zaen, K. M. Park, K. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, Y. Kang, Organometallics, 2018, 37, 4639-4647.
  18. S. C. F. Kui, P. K. Chow, G. S. M. Tong, S. L. Lai, G. Cheng, C. C. Kwok, K. H. Low, M. Y. Ko, C. M. Che, Chem. - A Eur. J., 2013, 19, 69-73.
  19. G. Liu, F. Liang, Y. Zhao, H. Hu, J. Fan, L. S. Liao, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2017, 5, 1944-1951.
  20. M. Mao, J. Peng, T. L. Lam, W. H. Ang, H. Li, G. Cheng, C. M. Che, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2019, 7, 72307236.
  21. M. Mao, T. L. Lam, W. P. To, X. Lao, W. Liu, S. Xu, G. Cheng, C. M. Che, Adv. Mater., 2021, 33, 1-8.
  22. R. G. Pearson, Inorg. Chem., 1973, 12, 712-713.
  23. W. Zhang, J. Ma, G. J. Liu, X. Y. Liu, J. Fan, L. S. Liao, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2017, 5, 9496-9503. 
  24. D. Zhao, X. Tang, X. Y. Liu, J. Fan, L. S. Liao, Org. Electron., 2017, 50, 473-479. 
  25. Y. Wang, Q. Peng, Z. Shuai, Mater. Horizons, 2022, 9, 334-341. 
  26. X. C. Hang, T. Fleetham, E. Turner, J. Brooks, J. Li, Angew. Chemie - Int. Ed., 2013, 52, 6753-6756. 
  27. H. Li, T. -L. Lam, L. Yan, L. Dai, B. Choi, Y. -S. Cho, Y. Kwak, C. -M. Che, in Liquid Crystals and Display Technology, ed. G. Morteza Sasani, 2020. 
  28. D. Wu, K. Qin, X. Gao, S. Cheng, A. Wu, C. Sha, H. Ma, Z. Sun, C. Zhang, X. -C. Hang, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2022, 10, 1365-1370. 
  29. Y. Chen, C. Qian, K. Qin, H. Li, X. Shi, Z. Lu, H. Ma, T. Qin, X. C. Hang, W. Huang, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2021, 13, 52833-52839. 
  30. J. Li, F. Liang, Y. Zhao, X. Y. Liu, J. Fan, L. S. Liao, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2017, 5, 6202-6209.
  31. G. Li, A. Wolfe, J. Brooks, Z. Q. Zhu, J. Li, Inorg. Chem., 2017, 56, 8244-8256. 
  32. T. Fleetham, J. H. Golden, M. Idris, H. M. Hau, D. S. Muthiah Ravinson, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, Inorg. Chem., 2019, 58, 12348-12357. 
  33. G. Li, X. Zhao, T. Fleetham, Q. Chen, F. Zhan, J. Zheng, Y. F. Yang, W. Lou, Y. Yang, K. Fang, Z. Shao, Q. Zhang, Y. She, Chem. Mater., 2020, 32, 537548. 
  34. L. Liu, X. Wang, N. Wang, T. Peng, S. Wang, Angew. Chemie - Int. Ed., 2017, 56, 9160-9164. 
  35. Y. K. Moon, J. S. Huh, S. Kim, S. Kim, S. Y. Yi, J. J. Kim, Y. You, ACS Appl. Electron. Mater., 2020, 2, 604-617. 
  36. G. Li, F. Zhan, J. Zheng, Y. F. Yang, Q. Wang, Q. Chen, G. Shen, Y. She, Inorg. Chem., 2020, 59, 37183729. 
  37. Y. She, K. Xu, X. Fang, Y. F. Yang, W. Lou, Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, G. Li, Inorg. Chem., 2021, 60, 1297212983. 
  38. G. Li, S. Liu, Y. Sun, W. Lou, Y. F. Yang, Y. She, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2022, 10, 210-218.
  39. J. S. Huh, M. J. Sung, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Kim, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2021, 31, 2100967. 
  40. I. Maisuls, C. Wang, M. E. Gutierrez Suburu, S. Wilde, C. G. Daniliuc, D. Brünink, N. L. Doltsinis, S. Ostendorp, G. Wilde, J. Kösters, U. Resch-Genger, C. A. Strassert, Chem. Sci., 2021, 12, 3270-3281. 
Volume 6, Issue 1
Spring and Summer; Special Issue: In Memory of Prof. Mehdi Rashidi
Pages 39-47
  • Receive Date: 19 January 2022
  • Revise Date: 21 February 2022
  • Accept Date: 03 March 2022
  • First Publish Date: 15 March 2022