A new 1D copper(I) coordination polymer [Cu2(μ-L)(μ-I)2]n (1), where L is N,N'-bis(4-nitrobenzylidene)butane-1,4-diamine, was synthesized and characterized by CHN, FT-IR, 1H NMR, and single-crystal X-ray analyses. Based on X-ray results, this new compound crystallizes in a monoclinic system with space group P21/c. The asymmetric unit consists of one copper and one iodine atoms and half of the Schiff base ligand (L). The flexible Schiff base compound is coordinated to copper(I) ion as a bis-monodentate ligand. The coordination geometry around the copper(I) ions is distorted trigonal planar. The thermal behavior of 1 was studied using thermogravimetry analysis. Moreover, the nanoparticles of 1 were prepared via the ultrasonic-assisted method and characterized by XRD and SEM analyses.