Investigation of Catalytic Activity and Kinetics of a Pd/Biphenyl-based Phosphine System in the Ullmann Cross-coupling of Para-substituted Aryl Bromides

Document Type : Research Paper


Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


Catalytic activity of a Pd/biphenyl based- phosphine system in the Ullmann cross-coupling reaction of various para-substituted aryl bromides were investigated. The results showed that the bulky electron-rich phosphine efficiently modify the electronic and steric properties of palladium center and promote the cross-coupling reaction. Mechanistic study using the Hammett correlation revels that electron-withdrawing substituents decrease the electron density at the palladium center and decrease the rate of oxidative-addition step such that this step will become the rate determining step (rds). On the other hand, electron-donating groups increase the rate of oxidative-addition step such that the reductive-elimination step will become the rds.


Volume 4, Issue 2
Autumn and Winter
Pages 194-200
  • Receive Date: 09 July 2020
  • Revise Date: 15 August 2020
  • Accept Date: 15 August 2020
  • First Publish Date: 01 December 2020